The Duke of Parma Resupplies Paris, September 1590

The Duke of Parma relieving Paris. Parma is in the middle of the picture, mounted dramatically on his horse (as expected). He has mounted companies armed with lancers and armed with firearms. There are also companies of pikemen. The supply wagons are just about to enter the gates of Paris. The King's camp is in the upper right corner.

The Spanish army was the most feared army of the day, and Parma one of its most able commanders. He never really faced Navarre in a large general action, although the two skirmished, and Parma took his death wound in such a skirmish. He relieved Rouen, but his army was trapped against the river. In a miraculous feat of military engineering and organization, withdraw it safely across the Seine to Flanders, but died later.

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-c. t. iannuzzo